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One grader, masked to participant identity and characteristics, measured retinal vessel width by using a computer-assisted program with high reproducibility (20, 21).
The average retinal arteriolar or venular calibers were calculated by using the Knudtson-Hubbard formula (22).
GL (glycemic load) is the product of a food's GI and total available carbohydrate content and represents both the quantity and quality of carbohydrates (3, 4).
Both dietary GI and GL have been proposed to contribute to the development of obesity (5), diabetes, and CVD (cardiovascular disease) (6).
Southgate - Elsevier Applied Science Table de composition des aliments – Institut Paul Lambin – 2000 Diagnostic et Traitement des hyperlipidemies de l'adulte - The Belgian Lipid Club - Guide de poche - 2ème édition - 1994 James W.
However, because the microcirculation is difficult to measure and quantify, there are few studies to date on its relation with carbohydrate nutrition and GI.
We used a large community-based sample of children aged 12 y to examine associations between the dietary intakes of carbohydrates, sugars, and fiber, dietary GI, and dietary GL and changes in retinal vascular caliber and fractal dimension.
In particular, we assessed the influence of soft drink (primarily sweetened with sucrose) and cordial (a sweet, flavored concentrated syrup that is mixed with water to taste) consumption and the principal carbohydrate-containing food groups (eg, breads and cereals) on the retinal microvasculature.
Information regarding the branching pattern or density of the retinal microvascular network can be best characterized by fractal analysis (14, 15).
Retinal fractal dimension is a single “global” measure of the branching pattern of retinal vessels as a whole and was earlier found to be associated with higher BP (blood pressure) (15), acute lacunar stroke (16), and coronary artery disease mortality (17).
– Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola U.